Seeds for the Future
the impact of genetically modified crops on the environment
Worldwide status of genetically modified crops
1. Classical plant breeding and genetically modified crops
Aids to plant breeding : mutations, jumping genes and horizontal gene transfer
Genetic modification of plants
2. Insect-resistant crops
Environmental impacts of Bt cotton
Is Bt cotton safe?
Bt crops in the pipeline
3. Herbicide-tolerant crops
Economic impacts of herbicide-tolerant crops
Environmental impacts of herbicide-tolerant crops
Herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Scotland, a farm-scale evaluation trial
The effect of herbicide-tolerant crops in developing countries
4. Virus-resistant and drought-tolerant crops
Environmental impact of resistance to viruses
5. Effects on biodiversity
Genetic, species and ecosystem diversity
Loss of biodiversity and why worry?
The impacts of agriculture on biodiversity
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety
6. Crops behaving badly : pollen spread, its prevention and coexistence of GM crops with conventional varieties
Gene flow in oilseed rape, sunflowers, rice and potatoes
Gene flow in Mexican maize
Gene flow from genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops
Coexistence of genetically modified and non-genetically modified crops
Genetically modified crop coexistence and economic consequences
Coexistence and liability
Preventing and managing gene flow
7. When plants don't come from their parents, horizontal gene transfer
Availability of DNA
Uptake of DNA
Establishment and expression of the transferred DNA in the recipient
8. Biosafety regulatory, trade and legal issues
Regulating transgenic crops
A strong regulatory system
Regulating transgenic crops sensibly
Intellectual property issues
9. Future watch
Drugs in crops
Plants that clean up the environment
Transgenic plants resistant to other pests
Genetically modified crops and hunger relief in developing countries
Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops
Jennifer A. Thomson, a molecular geneticist and food researcher, describes how genetically modified crops are developed, distributed, and regulated.
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