"From the author of 1491, the study of the pre-Columbian Americas, this new work is a history that explores the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed totally different suites of plants and animals. Columbus's voyages brought them back together, and marked the beginning of an extraordinary exchange of flora and fauna between Eurasia and the Americas. As the author shows, this global ecological tumult, the "Columbian Exchange", underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest generation of research by scientists, he shows how the creation of this worldwide network of exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Manila and Mexico City, where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted, the center of the world. In 1493, the author presents a scientific interpretation of our past.