English is becoming an important language for foreign students who do not have English as their mother tongue. English as a second language is difficult to learn. Most of the learners are on their university study and are considered adult learners. The study was made to improve the English learning experience of international students whose aim is to learn the language. This book is about factors that affect the learning ability of English learners. Stress is one of the major factors in learning. There are some other factors that affect the ability to learn. Some of those factors are peer, environment, academics and teachers. This study suggests nursing interventions for teachers to enhance the learning ability of their students. This book can help other researchers to improve their studies regarding adult learning. Auszug aus dem Text Text Sample: Foreign Studies: A vast number of studies exist in the relevant literature identifying the main problems facing teachers and students. The bulk of evidence points to specific factors that are responsible for high levels of psychological pressure for teachers and students, such as: high ratio between teacher-pupils, limited progress of pupils, heavy workload, role overload and role conflict, relationships with colleagues/poor working environment, insufficient salary, status, time/resource difficulties Problems in learning a foreign language may be related to an identifiable condition or situation and interfere with effective functioning. Anxiety may be thought of as an emotional process marked by subjectively unpleasant experiences (American Psychiatric Association, 2008). Reports of numbing, detachment, loss of control, and difficulty concentrating are common in students suffering from anxiety disorders. These symptoms may be activated when a student is exposed to a stimulus situation considered to
be stress provoking. Stress and anxiety, and the multiplicity of ways they manifest, may be difficult to identify (unhcc.unh.edu/resources/transtocollege.html). Physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral indicators might be evident only to the trained eye and often go undetected. Stresses may aggravate anxiety, where the learner who performs well under non-stressful conditions may suddenly experience anticipatory anxiety. Aydinili (2007) The roles and responsibilities of both teachers and learners are different from those in more traditional types of school-based learning. Generally, in problem-based classrooms, the teacher acts as a coach for or facilitator of activities that students carry out themselves. The teacher does not simply present information or directly control the progression of work. Instead, the teacher provides students with appropriate problems to work on, assists them in identifying and accessing the materials and equipment necessary to solve the problems, gives necessary feedback and support during the problem solving process, and evaluates students' participation and products, with the goal of helping them develop their problem-solving as well as their language and literacy skills. According to Krashen (2006) there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) affects approximately 3-4% of the population in the United States and is characterized by exaggerated concern and tension
that is often unfounded (adaa.org/AnxietyDisorderInfor/gad.cfm). The essential manifestations of GAD include symptoms that may present for up to 6 months, affecting specific areas of functioning. Someone suffering from GAD is unable to relax and may experience fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, and headaches. If the resultant behavior is sufficiently intense, a disturbance of the cognitive systems may become activated and the individual may remain in a hyperactive state. Cognitive processes under a perceived stressful situation are then impaired, and the student performs below average academically. There seems to be an issue in assessing both cognitive and non-cognitive variables when determining levels of anxiety and test performance. High levels of anxiety may contribute adversely to performance of skills required of nursing students and affect the learning process. Videbeck (2009) Teacher- Related anxiety causes uncomfortable cognitive, psychomotor, and physiologic responses such as difficulty with logical thought, increasing agitated motor activity, and elevated vital signs. To reduce these uncomfortable feelings, the person tries to reduce the level of discomfort by implementing new adaptive behavior or defense mechanisms. 'Mild anxiety can actually be an asset to clients by making them more alert and ready to learn.' 'It does not require any specific intervention by the nurse.' 'Anxiety can also result from experiencing the unknown.' Individuals may have a vague sense of dread when they do not know what to expect. Anxiety is caused not so much by any one specific event as by how an event is perceived by the individual, what else is happening in the client's life, and what skills and resources the individual has to cope with it (Eby, Brown 2005). Weiten, (2009) Anxiety is a constant companion of education. Every student feels some anxiety at
some time while in school, but for certain student's anxiety seriously inhibits learning or performance, particularly on tests. The main source of anxiety in school is the fear of failure, and with it, loss of self-esteem, teacher related factors, peer or classmate related factors, academic related factors and the physical environment. Low achievers are likely to feel anxious in school, but they are by no means the only ones; we all know very able, high- achieving students who are also very anxious, terrified to be less than perfect on any school task. Tobias(2011). Anxiety can block school performance in several ways. Anxious students may have difficulty learning in the first place; they may have difficulty using knowledge on tests. Slavin (2008) There are many strategies teachers can apply to reduce the negative impact of society on learning and performance. It is clear that creating a classroom climate that is accepting comfortable and noncompetitive helps. Giving students opportunities to correct errors or improve their work before handling it in also helps anxious children, does providing clear, unambiguous instructions. In testing situations, teachers can do many things to help anxious students to do their best. One is to avoid time pressure, to give students time to complete a test and check their work. Anxiety can have a various effects on learning. Highly anxious students often engage in failure avoiding strategies because they cannot emotionally handle failure. Such efforts and attention that night lead to learning. Anxious students my not attend to many academic tasks because they are preoccupied with worry and feelings of inadequacy. They may have unusual difficulty in learning material that is not well organized, and when given a chance, may choose easier tasks (in which success is more certain) to avoid negative evaluations.
Gearheart (2009) Environmental elements have different effects on students. Noise is important in terms of a student's ability to tolerate sounds while learning. Some students are able to block out extraneous noises, whereas others need a quiet environment. Lighting may also affect students in different ways- some students prefer a brightly lit area, whereas others prefer subdued light. Some students prefer an easy chair when tackling a difficult learning task, whereas others prefer a straight back chair and desk. Although teachers may not be able to modify all aspects of the environment significantly, they should consider its effects. If a student's difficulty seems to be related to an environmental problem, attempts should be made to adapt or modify conditions as necessary. Charles (2009) Ambiance refers to the totality of intangible impressions that pervade the physical classroom- an atmosphere that at its best conveys excitement, aesthetics, comfort, security and pleasure. It is created in large part by the contents of the room, which many teachers further enhance with art and music. Ambiance deserves this attention because it helps teachers provide students comfort, enjoyment, stimulation and satisfaction. Gorman, Raines, and Sultan (2009) And because everyone has experienced anxiety, there are a variety of methods used to cope with it. Some common coping mechanisms are talking about problems with others; physical work or activity; systematic problem solving; avoidance of the stressful situation; crying or laughing; expressing intense emotions verbally; using humor; praying; sleeping excessively; distracting oneself from one stressful situation with other activities(reading, music, hobbies). Gestwicke (2009) People use coping behaviors to adapt or manage stress and anxiety or change. To control anxiety, people develop patterns of coping