Self – Concept, Learning Styles, Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents in Kashmir

Self – Concept, Learning Styles, Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents in Kashmir

A Study on Psychological Variables and Academic Achievement of Adolescents in Kashmir

eBook - 2014
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and so on and we are variously affected by it'. According to Rogers, an accurate and positive self-concept is necessary for full functioning (Meador and Rogers, 1974; Rogers, (1983) Damon and Hart (1982) have proposed that an important distinction (first made by William James) is necessary for understanding self-concept. The distinction is between 'I' and 'Me.' Damon and Hart (1982) have proposed that the 'Me' includes four aspects of the self: the physical self, the active self, the social self and the psychological self. Although all aspects of the self are important, the emphasis among them changes during development. Behaviour is consistent with self-concept, experiences that are inconsistent with the self-concept and are viewed as threatening, the self-concept changes as a result of learning. Learning is one of the fundamental areas in psychology. The theorists named already Pavlov, Toleman, Watson, and Skinner are some of the most influential in this discipline. The history of learning theory is, in many ways, the history of psychology. Some of the earliest psychological research came from studies in animal learning conducted by Edward Lee Thorndike in the 1890's Edwin R. Gurthrie in the early 1900's and from Toleman, Pavlov, and others. One of the most important movements in psychology, Behaviourism, was largely a learning-based approach. Watson founded this school of thought, and described it in his book Behaviourism (1925), in an effort to make psychology an objective and scientific field of research. He believed that all behaviour could be explained by learning principles. Skinner extended and continued this field of thought beginning in the 1930's and behaviourism dominated psychology for the next few decades. We can categorize an individual's strength and weaknesses about the processes of learning from a number of different factors
acquired meaning and which have been related to the other self-percepts. The self-percepts are observed facts, the impressions of raw material of self which individual receives via several senses. Since the person cannot subscribe the meaning to himself in a vacuum, the concept of self is generally a picture of the self; in some role a certain situation, in some position, performing a certain set of functions, or in some relationship. The whole idea of concept and percepts has been beautifully knitted by Roger in his publication. To quote him, 'the self-concept or self-structure may be thought of as an organized configuration of perception of the self which are admissible to awareness. It is composed of such elements as the perceptions of one's characteristics and abilities, the percepts and the concept of the other self in relation to the other and to the environment, the value-qualities which are perceived as associated with experiences and objects and the goals and ideas which are perceived as having positive or negative valence'. Self-concept is the way people think about themselves. It is unique, dynamic, and always evolving. This mental image of oneself influences a person's identity, self-esteem, body image. As a global understanding of oneself, self-concept shapes and defines who we are, the decisions we make, and the relationships we form. Self-concept is perhaps the basis for all motivated behaviour (Franken, 1994). Three basic components of self-concept are the ideal self, the public self, and the real self. Cooley (1902) developed the concept of the 'Looking-glass-self'. He defines it 'as we see our face, figure and dress in the glass and are interested in them because they are ours and pleased or otherwise with them'. As in imagination we perceive in others mind, some thought of our appearance, manners, aims, deeds, character, friends
examine resources of inner strength and fathom the strength of their inner abilities. The adolescent tries to have freedom to think and set his own goals and discover means to achieve them. Adolescence is considered as a transitional phase, a 'status passage' between childhood and adulthood (Fend, 2000; Flammer and Alsaker, 2002; Hurrelmann, Rosewitz and Wolf, 1994; Maggs, Schulenberg and Hurrelmann, 1997). In this transition phase, bodily, emotional, and social changes occur and these changes fully occupy the attention of the adolescents. The main questions that are stated to the self are concentrated on emotions ('How am I?'), social development ('What am I able to do?'), and identity ('Who am I?'). The adolescent way of thinking is rather egocentric (Elkind, 1978) and adolescents are quite concerned about their appearance, their impression on others, and their abilities. Also, they tend to feel that they are the focus of attention of others. Development of Self is an important phase of this stage. It refers to the image which adolescents hold about themselves. Attitudes of right and wrong may also become part of their psychological self. Self may involve, after certain stages of psychological growth, concepts like I, we, mine and yours. The growing adolescent's ability and the concept of self, is influenced by the way in which they accept others. Closely associated with the problem of self is the quest for meaning and purpose which constantly occupies adolescent's thinking. This is so because they are constantly in search of selfhood. Early in the History of Psychology, Self was considered as an important topic of interest. For example, in the times of James (1890), the self played a central role in psychological thinking and to a good extent; ist study was pursued by introspection (Calvin, 1915). Self-concept is hence self-percepts, which have
stages of life. Growth refers to quantitative changes in physical development, i.e. increase in size, height and weight. Growth refers to the structural and physiological changes, i.e. growth in height and weight or it may be change in the particular aspects of the body or some part of the body. The term development refers to change in structure, form or shape and improvement in functioning. When qualitative changes occur in behavioral characteristics of the child, it is called development. Development means the whole sequence of life from conception to death. It may imply the change in the organism as a whole. Hurlock says that it is 'progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern'. The changes are directional leading to vertical and horizontal mobility and resulting in new characteristics and new abilities on the part of the individual. Development is comprehensive which includes physical, social, and emotional and many more aspects of an individual. With the onset of adolescence, physiological changes accelerate, sexual maturity arrives, social relationships become more intense and new cognitive capacities emerge. Although psychological maturity does not occur so rapidly because teenage is a stage of transition accelerated by development. When we speak of the adolescent as 'growing up,' we mean that the youth has left behind the phase of protective childhood and is becoming independent, capable of going out to fend for him/her. Early adolescence extends roughly from 13-16 and late adolescence covers the period from 16 until 18, the age of legal maturity. Adolescent is the most crucial period in the life of a human being. It is the stage when the surge of life reaches to ist highest peak. The adolescent's life is, or might be, full of hopes. The adolescents are eager to interact with new experiences, to find new relationships, to
There have been a countless new developments in the field of education. It is a fact that in recent years Education has emerged as a professional subject knowledge of which is essential for an effective instruction.The utility of the book is further enhanced by the provision of summary and references and appendices. Not only this the logistic and lucid presentation of the book will foster critical thinking and creative imagination in dealing with the students.It is hoped that this book will enable the teachers to perceive classroom situations with a deeper insight and also increase his/her professional competence. They can focus on the shortcomings of the students so that they can be tackled well in time and can groom and excel in all fields of life.   Auszug aus dem Text Text Sample: CHAPTER 1: Introduction: The latest concept about the influences exerted on the child starts right from the neonatal stage. This is an established fact that outer environment plays a dominant role in the formation of the body and the make-up of neonate's mind. However, at later stage a person, to some extent, shapes the pattern of his life by the choices and decisions he makes at successive stages of life. The choice and decisions taken are usually based on the inputs that he/she has received during the preceding years, be it from family, peers or school. So far as the school influence is concerned a teacher assumes pivotal position. A teacher's main concern in the classroom is all-round development of the child. It is a time tested adage as is the teacher so is the taught and as is the taught so is the society. A teacher dedicated in educating a child in a balanced and integrated manner has to understand the characteristics, proclivity of a child at various stages of life. Therefore, it is essential for a teacher to study the growth and development of different
Publisher: Hamburg : Diplomica Verlag, 2014
Edition: 1st ed
Copyright Date: ©2014
ISBN: 9783954897100
Branch Call Number: Electronic book
Characteristics: 1 online resource (183 pages)
Additional Contributors: ProQuest (Firm)


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