Nutrition Security in Tanzania

Nutrition Security in Tanzania

Orange-fleshed Sweet Potatoes and Their Contribution to Health

eBook - 2014
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Particularly in developing countries nearly one billion people are effected by nutrition insecurity in form of under- or malnutrition (FAO 2010, p. 1). Merely by the expression of vitamin A-deficiency an estimate of up to 500,000 children go blind worldwide every year (WHO 2011). This survey deals with a solution approach in form of the contribution made by the orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and its afford towards nutrition security in rural areas of Mwanza, Tanzania. With help of the partner organization TAHEA, a retrospective population-based study of the nutritional status of rural population of Mwanza was conducted and impressions on food security were reinforced through participant observation. The positive influence of OFSP towards vitamin A status has been confirmed and among others an income-generating function by cultivation and sale of the tuber has been observed. The risk of a possible overdose must also be considered. Thus, the tuber is recommended as a nutritious snack or side dish, but should not be advertised as a considered staple food.   Auszug aus dem Text Text Sample: Chapter 4, Influences of the nutritional situation in Tanzania: 4.1, Traditional diet: The diet of the Tanzanian population is based on cereals, starchy roots with high fiber content and pulses in rural as well as in urban areas (FAO 2008, p. 17). Starchy foods provide almost three quarters of the total energy supply, despite the wide variety of food produced in Tanzania. Consumption of micronutrient dense foods such as animal products is low and subsequently micronutrient deficiencies are widespread (FAO 2008, p. 3). Especially among rural communities the frequency of vegetable consumption is high. There they are included in every meal, but generally quantities are small. Therefore, vegetables do not contribute significantly to nutrient intake. Fruits are not
commonly consumed, as they are not considered as important by many adults. Maize is consumed as a staple in all regions of the country, but especially in urban regions. Other cereals, roots and tubers such as yams, millet and sweet potatoes are known but contribute less to the diet as they are less preferred than maize (FAO 2008, p. 17). The country is separated into seven agro-ecological zones, each one having a main staple. Widespread staples are: plantain in north western tip and northern Tanzania; maize and some sorghum in the central and southern highlands zones; rice in the river basins of Kilombero, Rufiji and eastern zones; cassava in western and south eastern areas. In rural areas and among the low-income part of the urban inhabitants, the quantity of food consumed can be limited and meal regularity varies with the season. During the wet season food consumed may be limited to one meal per day, while two to three meals may be consumed during the dry or harvest season. Frequency of meat and milk consumption is extremely low, on average once a week, a month or even less (FAO 2008, p. 17). The most common main dish is stiff porridge, called in the national language Kiswahili as ugali, made from maize flour, sorghum or cassava with water. It is eaten with a relish either made of vegetables, sardines, pulses or meat. Rice and various fish cooked in coconut oil are also preferred staples for people living in coastal communities. The introduction of various spices by the Arabs is highly evident in a popular coastal dish, namely pilau. It consists of rice spiced with curry, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, and hot peppers. Eggplant, tomatoes, 15 beans, spinach and other greens, as well as maize are frequently eaten, many of these are grown in backyard gardens. Fried bananas, also called plantains, is a very popular local dish, while in the cities, Indian
food is plentiful. All of this meals are usually eaten out of a large bowl that is shared by everyone at the table (FOOD BY COUNTRY 2011). Tea is the most widely consumed beverage. It is classically taken throughout the day, often while socializing and visiting friends and family. Sweet fried rice cakes called vitumbua are commonly eaten with the tea in the mornings, or between meals as a snack. Chapatti, a fried flat bread, also served with tea, is a popular snack among all groups of age (FOOD BY COUNTRY 2011). In the urban areas, food behaviors and dietary patterns have radically changed in the last decades, especially among the high-income group, partly due to trade liberalization and globalization. Energy dense foods and western-type fast foods have become eagerly obtainable on the market and their consumption has increased considerably. The dietary pattern has changed from a traditional diet high in carbohydrates and fiber to consumption of non-traditional processed foods, meat and alcohol (FAO 2008, p. 17). 4.2, Food and Nutrition security: In 2009, there were about 280,000 people in Tanzania in the food insecure category. Some reasons are the decline in food supplies and high prices, due to increasing transport costs across the country, intensified plant diseases in the Lake Victoria Zone and a new imposed policy for using acceptable fishing equipment in lakes, rivers, and on the coast at a time when stocks from previous harvest are running low. These factors have caused moderate food insecurity in Mwanza and some other regions (FEWS NET 2009, p. 1). Tanzanian national efforts to enhance the quality of food and nutrition by considering important aspects such as availability of food, proper food preparation and preservation began immediately after independence in 1961 and were reinforced after the Arusha Declaration of 1967 (MOH 1992, p. i).
The formation of the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC) in 1973 was one of the major steps taken by the Government to improve nutrition status in the country (MOH 1992, p. 10). In 1996, the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the WORLD FOOD SUMMIT (1996) Plan of Action defined food security as existing when all people around the world at all times have access to adequate, safe, 16 nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (see p. 1). Health is one of the basic human rights that does not only imply a persońs state of being free from disease but also the state of being well physically, mentally and spiritually hence the ability to participate fully in the community developmental process (WHO w. y. quoted from MOH 1992, p. i). Linked through malnutrition, health is an undeniably aspect of food and nutrition security, like sustainable economic development, environment, and trade to. That makes food and nutrition security to a complex sustainable development issue (WHO 2011). Food security includes physical and economic access to food that meets peoplés dietary needs as well as their food preferences (WFS 1996, p. 3). These dietary needs are defined as the nutritional status which is the balance between the intake of nutrients by an organism and the expenditure of these in the processes of growth, reproduction, and health maintenance (UMWELTLEXIKON-ONLINE 2010). The requirements varies with the level of physical activity, age and gender and also with the weight, body size of a person and the climatic conditions of the living place (NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 1989, p. 30ff.) Nutrition security is achieved when a household has secure access to food connected with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and knowledgeable care to ensure a healthy life for all household members. The results of more productive and
profitable agriculture or from enhanced growth in the broader economy are an improved food security at the household or individual levels and thus an input to a better quality of life. An individual's ability to reach the full personal and economic potential depends to a large degree on the level of nutrition security (BENSON 2004, p. 9). As food security, nutrition security is defined at the household and the individual levels, but the determinants extend far beyond the control of the household itself. It is the concern of many more institutions, sectors, and other actors (BENSON 2004, p. 11). Food and nutrition security is built on three pillars, namely food availability, food access, and food use including hygiene aspects (see Fig. 4). It is a complex sustainable development issue that is linked to health through malnutrition, but also to sustainable economic development, environment, and trade (WHO 2011).
Publisher: Hamburg : Diplomica Verlag, 2014
Edition: 1st ed
Copyright Date: ©2014
ISBN: 9783954896684
9783954891689
Branch Call Number: Electronic book
Characteristics: 1 online resource (108 pages)
Additional Contributors: ProQuest (Firm)

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