Women in African Refugee Camps

Women in African Refugee Camps

The Case of Mai Ayni Refugee Camp, Northern Ethiopia

eBook - 2013
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The study has found that female refugees in refugee camp were exposed to sexual violence, physical violence and socio-economic violence including attempt rape, rape, gang rape, physical injuries, discrimination and stigmatization and denial of access to services. The book also disclosed that male refugees and intimate partners of female refugees were the prime gender based violence perpetrators of female refugees in Mai Ayni refugee camp. Moreover, the study revealed that idleness, economic dependency, physical insecurity, lack of awareness, collapse of social and family structure as well as poor reporting, coordination and legal enforcement mechanisms were identified as causes/risk factors for gender based violence against female refugees in refugee camp. Moreover, men's feeling of 'loss of power' in the camp, which challenges male's identity as superior to female, led male refugees to anger and makes female refugees vulnerable to different forms of gender based violence. Consequently, because of gender based violence, female refugees in refugee camp have short and long lasting damaging consequence on their life in terms of health, physical and psycho-social.   Auszug aus dem Text Text sample: Kapitel 2.1., Conceptualizing Gender- Based Violence: There is no one commonly agreed universal definition of gender-based violence; understandings differ according to country, community and legal context. Violence against women is a term often used synonymously with gender-based violence. Nevertheless, the term does not make it clear whether or not the violence is derived from unequal power relationships between female and male in society. Hence, the adjective 'gender-based" is repeatedly used to highlight the role that females' subordinate status in society plays in increasing the risk that they will be impacted by violence. Thus, the intention of the
term is in order to stress that violence against female is a phenomenon that is connected to the gender of both victim and perpetrator. Moreover, there is a tendency of extending this definition to all kinds of violence that are linked to social expectations and social positions based on gender. Accordingly, research in the area provides compelling evidence that violence against women is caused by gender inequities and is both accepted and sometimes even tolerated by laws, institutions and community norms that discriminate the female. Thus, gender-based violence is a term that gradually encompasses all acts of violence rooted in some form of gender inequalities, and with the purpose of preserving social power. Legally, gender-based violence was defined by the U.N. Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1992) as: a violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or violence that affects women disproportionately. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty. Moreover, the 1993 United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (Hereinafter referred to as, DEVAW) defined gender based violence as: Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life Furthermore, Article 2 of DEVAW further specifies that violence against women should include different types of violence. Hence, it was referred as 'gender-based" to focus the links between violence against women and women's subordinate status. Besides, the definition was expanded in 1995 by the Fourth World Conference on Women in
its Beijing Platform for Action, which added that such violence includes forced sterilization and forced abortion, coercive or forced contraceptive use, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection and women's human rights violations in situations of armed conflict particularly murder, systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy. Also, another form of gender-based violence i.e. economic exploitation was recognized by the Commission on Human Rights in its Resolution 2003/45 on 'Elimination of Violence against Women". 2.1.1., Forms of Gender-Based Violence: Based on different international human rights instruments, UNHCR developed five forms of gender based violence; Sexual violence, Physical violence, Emotional and Psychological violence, Harmful traditional practices and Socio-economic violence. Sexual violence is one of the forms of gender based violence with a devastating impact on victims. It is also a human rights and public health issue that exceeds borders and incurs a devastating global human cost. According to WHO, sexual violence is any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or other act directed against a person's sexuality using force by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting. Moreover, the UNHCR guideline on sexual and gender based violence against refugees explored various forms of sexual violence; included are rape, marital rape, child sexual abuse, defilement and incest, sexual abuse (inappropriate touching), sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, sexual harassment and sexual violence as a weapon of war. The other form of gender based violence is socio-economic violence which includes firstly, discrimination and/or denial of opportunities, services; secondly, social exclusion/ ostracism based on sexual orientation; and thirdly, obstructive legislative practice. Accordingly, this
type of gender based violence is a fundamental cause for other forms of gender based violence. The third form of gender based violence is physical violence which can be manifested through beating, punching, kicking, biting, burning, maiming or killing, with or without weapons; often used in combination with other forms of gender-based violence. Moreover, there are worst forms of physical violence such as trafficking, slavery. This form of gender based violence greatly affects females' health and psychology. For instance, the 2005 WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women in 10 mainly developing countries indicates that in rural Tanzania 47% of ever-partnered women have ever experienced physical violence by an intimate partner, while 31% have ever experienced sexual violence. To sum up, gender based violence comprises much more than sexual violence. Although it may occur in public contexts, it is also rooted in individual attitudes that condone violence within the family, the community and the state. Needless to say, the root causes of gender-based violence must be identified before appropriate programmes to prevent and respond to this violence are planned. Thus, the next section explores the causes of gender based violence.
Publisher: Hamburg : Diplomica Verlag, 2013
Edition: 1st ed
Copyright Date: ©2014
ISBN: 9783954896264
Branch Call Number: Electronic book
Characteristics: 1 online resource (111 pages)
Additional Contributors: ProQuest (Firm)


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